## sobota 20. září 2008

### Aether and particle charge

This repulsion is the principle of charge interaction, the so called weak nuclear force in particular. This force is effective just at 10E-18 to 10E-15 meters distance scale and it's always repulsive for normal particles, but attractive for particles and antiparticles. We are calling it a leptonic charge, too. The attractive force of the particles with opposite charges is the result of mutual composition of torsion deformations of Aether between particles (a constructive interference occurs in terms of quantum waves spreading), which increases the density of Aether foam here. The particle waves are focused into more dense area between particles, which we can perceive as an attractive force. The repulsive force follow exactly the opposite mechanism.

The composition of leptonic charges inside of hadrons can lead to more fancy interactions, known as a strong nuclear and electromagnetic charges. Note that the rest mass of particle doesn't implies the charge, because the motion of Aether inside of particles should exhibit so called helicity to manifest itself as an omni-directional interaction. On the animated scheme we can see the Aether motion inside of positively (left-handed), neutral and negatively (right-handed) charge neutrino. Note that the existence of charge implies the presence of nested hidden dimensions (denoted by red color on the animations bellow), as the 3D incompressible fluid cannot undulate with helicity, it can form a vortex rings only.

The massive particles without charge are called neutral or sterile particles (sterile neutrino or sterile electron, predicted by Heim theory). In general, the sterile particles are metastable, because they tend to decay into pair of particles of the opposite charges. We can expect the presence of sterile particles only at the dense environment near black holes and or inside of massive stars. From the diagram bellow is apparent, the sterile electron should be a much less stable, then sterile neutrino, the density of which is much close to the density of vacuum, then at the case of electron.

## pátek 19. září 2008

### Aether and theory of evolution

Because the density gradients are immanent part of observable reality, we cannot avoid the singularities and the phase transitions as well. Being formed by Aether compactification, the singularities appears less common then the gradualistic phase of matter evolution, but it's only illusion. The total amount of space closed inside matter of galaxies and black holes is probably very close to the volume of "neighboring" vacuum, it's just compacted. From this perspective even the Big-Bang and inflation events are gradualistic process - despite the time asymmetry, as perceived from inside of space-time generation, which is formed by it. We should be prepared to find the signs of proceeding inflation process near giant black holes and quasars.

By AWT the evolution of living matter has occurred via condensation of foamy phase by the same way, like the phase transitions of vacuum. From this perspective the classical Oparin's theory based on coacervate (inverse micelles, liposomes) condensation appears most fast and as such probable. Note the striking similarity between nested phase transform of supercritical foam and the foam of inverse micelles in dispersion of diluted surfactant solution (mostly phospholipids). The repeated shaking of oily protein dispersion at the surface of ancient oceans makes proper conditions for fast evolutionary breeding and selection of micelles by their surfactant concentration/production speed. We can even assume the active locomotion of oily droplets and various coalescence phenomena in this phase due surface tension. By such way, these primitive physical system exhibits most of signs characteristic for living matter even et the very beginning of its biochemical evolution in the wide range of conditions.

From AWT perspective, the cellular foam of tissues of living organism is direct analogy of Aether foam characterized by interactions in many nested dimensions and both they're surface tension driven. The surface density gradients (branes) separating cells are manifestation of space-time compactification (a space-time frozen) due prolonged period of their evolution in both cases. And the fractal nested hierarchy of cells in complex organisms and their colonies (Volvox globator) corresponds the surface driven hierarchy of atoms and atom nuclei, composed from quarks, etc...

## čtvrtek 18. září 2008

### AWT and truth concept

From the above concept follows, here always exists and outer and inner perspective, from which some hierarchy level can be described. The observable generation of Universe forms just one of many nested hierarchy levels of fractal foam shape, which can exists inside of Aether of infinite mass/energy density and the number of such levels isn't virtually limited, they just become selfsimmilar from distant perspective, when the number of distance levels increases. This makes the role of inner and outer perspective indistinguishable each of other from sufficiently distant perspective (the principle of Maldacena duality or AdS/CFT correspondence). Inside of nested foam we can never say, which part of foam belongs to inner or outer perspective with certainty. During light spreading through foam from source placed into vessel with hole the light will follow all possible paths by such a way, the photons will surround the vessel both from outside, both from inside, thus mimicking the omniscient conscioussnes of omnipresent God.

We can illustrate this concept at the case of violation of Lorentz invariance, which is fundamental postulate of special relativity from local perspective. We can see at the case of gravitational lensing, the blind adherence on global validity of local rules leads to the undeniable violation of these rules from sufficiently global/outer perspective: the light is moving along curved path through vacuum, like during spreading through environment with variable speed of light (a quantum mechanics approach). While from internal persecutive such effect remains consequence of space-time curvature apparently (a relativity approach).

Unfortunately, here's no way, how to reconcile the outer perspective with the internal one, because the observer cannot stay inside and outside of subject at the same moment (here's an informational singularity). From the same reason, these two perspectives cannot be reconciled by formal math explicitly, as here exists an infinite number of ways, how to seamlessly connect the inner and outer perspective (for example by using of higher derivations, i.e. by renormalization procedure). The huge landscape of possible string theory solutions suffers this uncertainty, too, because only singular concept (i.e. zero-dimensional strings, i.e. points) can describe the singularity between inner and outer perspectives without qualitative lost of information.

The above model doesn't say, the outer perspective is more general, though - because the very same situation repeats even at the deeper level of nested hierarchy. From sufficiently distant perspective all theories can be considered true and false at the same moment, and the AWT is supposedly no exception. From AWT perspective all hierarchy levels are connected mutually at the sufficient time/space distance into single one (an "Uroboros" or "Klein bottle" topology of observable Universe). Which effectively means, the surface of most distant quasars or smallest gravitons inside of our Universe generation cannot be distinguished from outside of our Universe.

In accordance with this, the temperature of CMB (i.e. the interior of Universe) corresponds the Hawking radiation of black hole, whose lifespan corresponds the age of our Universe generation and the mass density of which corresponds energy density of vacuum (i.e. the 3rd power of Planck constant for 3D space perspective), which makes the above hypthesis testable experimentally.

### Aether and formal mathematics

The physical models often enable to derive the predictions, which are difficult to handle (or even to express) by formal math, for example the order of Venus phases from heliocentric model (after all, how we can express mathematically the simple information, the Earth revolves around Sun and not vice-versa?). At such cases, the picture of geometry is much more illustrative.

From this point of view it's not accidental, the common illustrations of modern physical theories (like string theory) are mostly quite schematic and pathetic. Such drawings illustrate nothing, but the fact, their authors have no true physical insight into real situation - so they cannot imagine/picture even their own models.

But here are more substantial objections against formal approach in physics. The true is, the consecutive ("step-by-step") logic of formal math describes the heavily parallelized physics of multiparticle systems poorly. Even the gravitational system of five bodies is (nearly) impossible to describe by formal math and the resulting description would be so complex, so that nothing useful can be derived from it. This is the reason, why we have no deterministic description of phenomena in multiparticle system, like the turbulence. This forces the formally thinking physicists to use the probabilistic interpretation instead - like at the case of quantum mechanics - although such system remains deterministic apparently - it's just more complex, then the consecutive formal math can handle (while we know already, we can model the quantum mechanics phenomena by discrete particle models, even experimentally).

By such way,

*the formally thinki*

*ng physicists are effectively mentally blocked from understanding, our Universe can be interpreted by multiparticle system*for last two hundred years. Their formal math and way of thinking is

*simply incompatible*with this trivial idea - even at the case, the illustrative understanding of such system can be quite simple. This is dual approach to philosophy, which cannot describe some connections by using of formal math, even at the case, such description can be quite simple. It's evident, the optimized approach in reality understanding should involve both strategies (the formal and non-formal one) in balanced ratio.

Of course, the above problem just illustrates the limits of math and formal thinking - not the limits of AWT concept. We should simply face the fact, here exists a wide group of phenomena and geometries, the handling of which by formal math is noneffective with respect to their understanding - that's all. This doesn't say, the formal math is nonsense - it's simply inappropriate tool for deterministic / reproducible description of such systems.

From general perspective, the AWT is extrapolation of free fermion models of string field theories to zero dimension. These models are nothing very new in physics, as some physicists have assumed already, the strings are composed from more fundamental particles (so called preons) already. The one-dimensional strings are just the lowest number of dimensions, which the formal math can handle without problem, while avoiding the singularities. The concept of environment composed from zero dimensional particles is naturally singular from formal math perspective, so the formal math cannot use it. It can be replaced by concept of one or more-dimensional strings partially - but here's a technical problem: such approximation leads to landscape of 10E+500 possible solutions (which roughly corresponds the number of 0D particles involved in this model of observable Universe) - so it's unusable from practical reasons. But the system of many particles can be handled without explicit models, for example by computer simulation:

From such particle model is evident, the system enables the only single way of Aether compactification, leading to dynamic foam of higher-dimensional density fluctuations (i.e. "strings" and "branes") naturally - so no giant landscapes of possible solutions, no ad-hoc assumption of strings, no assumption of (unexplained yet) relativity and quantum mechanics postulates is required here at all - and we can derive all these postulates from geometry of simple particle concept instead. By such way, AWT is highly motivated approach, which follows Occam razor criterion, minimizing the number of postulates in theory.

### Aether and sectarian community

Not at all, their stance is highly substantiated. The true is, the mainstream physics as a whole has changed into conservative, closed sectarian society in certain extent, by the same way, like the Holy Church of medieval era. Here are even some common aspects of both societies: for example, the Holy Church had managed its Malleus maleficarum, while the mainstream proponents have their Crackpot index, i.e. the list of less or more formal rules, which enables the mainstream proponents to distinguish the "truth" from "crackpot and fringe science" without thorough analyzing of true content of subject.

For every sectarian comunity is characteristic its biased approach to mistakes due its closed surface asymmetry. While the normal gnoseologic approach based on evolution considers the presence of mistakes as a nonvital, but unavoidable mutations in thinking, the sectarian society avoids to accept that and it covers its conceptual mistakes, whenever possible. The missunderstanding and false refusal of Aether concept is such a mistake, but not the only one. We can face the same behavior of mainstream towards the false refusal of cold fusion or the existence of many "paranormal" phenomena. At the moment, such concepts are throwen out, it becomes quite difficult for mainstream science community to reconsider or even admit them again - their refusal simply becomes an integral part of ideology. While with respect to Poppers methodology the scientific method is completely symmetric: because every hypthesis/theory should be considered untrue by definition, every negation of hypothesis is another hypothesis, which should be handled with caution as well.

Another well pronounced aspect of sectarian society is its adherence to internal formal rules ("scientific method"), which the thinking of individuals must follow (the formal thinking in particular), while ignoring the way of thinking of the rest of society - despite the fact, the formal thinking makes the understanding of concept more difficult in many cases. For sectarian communities is characteristic the long "incubation period" for novices (a "novitiate"), connected with thorough brain washing and repeated formal examines of "ready state" of novices, as practiced in high schools. By analogous way, the learning of physics involves a long term studies of its formal approach without true understanding of subject at its natural, intuitive level.

The character of contemporary educational system is adjusted by the way, the students can never met with such intuitive understanding of physics for years, so they cannot handle and use it at all during their further scientific carrier. This approach establishes the state of psychical dependence on subject, because the novices are simply worrying about abilities, which have spent so lotta of time and effort by learning of. No wonder such people will try to ignore the non-formal approach in physics obstinately whenever possible, and their educational activities in physics will remain constrained to formal description, but not explanation of subject, the finding of new paradigms the less.

But the formal approach has even its common sociological aspects - not only the strictly individual ones. Every sectarian community cultivates its specific language and formal approach (Latin words, formal math), which enables it to communicate by less or more fluous ways internally, but it enables to separate it from the rest of society by creation of less or more artificial information barriers. It prohibits the rest of society to understand, what the mainstream scientists really doing for public taxes, and to determine, if it can be useful or even safe for the rest of society at all (expensive and dangerous LHC experiments as an example). This artificially kept absence of feedback simplifies the scientists the asking for new and new money for research, while keeping their sovereignty over choice of the further subject of research. We can say, the contemporary scientists are druids and medicine mans of modern era, whose trying to keep their way of understanding of reality in secret. This can be another reason, why the common scientists aren't very happy from Aether concept, as it reveals clearly, the complex and highly formal way of physics interpretation is unsubstantiated. If they admit the Aether concept, then just in the form of sufficiently obscured way, like "vector/scalar field", or something similar less comprehensible one.

Such approach is nothing strange or new from AWT perspective. Inside of each multicomponent system (like the scientific society composed of many people) an emergent phase transition occurs, which is followed the formation of droplets and other artifacts separated from the rest by density gradient of information. Such droplets exhibits the behavior of boson condensate, which means the information is shared internally a much easier, then with their neighborhood, which is the manifestation of censorship of close-minded totalitarian and sectarian society. By such way, the mainstream science serves as an islands of communism and totalitarian thinking with respect to rest of society, not just because of its mandatory way of sources privatization without free market feedback, but because of its way of information handling, too.

The formation of boson condensate state is the manifestation of low energy state (i.e. cooling or informational crisis) and its typical behavior is, the droplets of resulting phase cannot dissolve in its environment, being quantized. Instead of this, the small droplets will evaporate without change of their state on behalf of these larger, more successful ones (the evaporation of rain droplets, or Hawking evaporation of black holes as an exaggerated example). By the same way, most of people, when facing the lack of arguments, it cannot change theirs stance, while insisting on it obstinately - until they're defeated by weight of arguments. This is the source of thixotropic and brittle behavior of sectarian communities toward foreign ideas (a sort of Meissner effect of boson condensates) - while from inside perspective (where these ideas remains separated by phase interface) they're appear superfluous, smoothly communicating and internally consistent.

## neděle 14. září 2008

### Aether and anthropic principle

Despite the natural character of this model, we should put the question, why is it all so? Why the reality is gradient driven and the transversal waves are forming the only way, by which the causal information is mediated? By my opinion the reason is somewhat anthropic: the character of transversal waves enables the complexity of our world, because it's energy density dependent. The mass density of multicomponent environment, which can serve for transversal wave spreading is proportional to the energy density of that wave. By such way, every transversal wave is behaving like less or more "intelligent creature", because it not just only spreads through environment passively, but it affects it by the way of positive feedback: it collects the other transversal waves from it's neighborhood, while avoids the mass/energy density voids, i.e. obstacles. Even the most trivial transversal wave soliton behaves like living organism, like bacteria (prokaryote), which follows the (chemical) energy density gradients (sugar or proteins), while avoiding the places of low energy density, i.e. exhibiting a sort of rudimentary consciousness. We can observe this behavior on the colony of slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, which follows the concentration of sugar leaking from the opened tip of pipette.

We can consider the people as an exaggerated example of such behavior, which is the result of both long-term evolution, both the very special and prosperous condition in our special place of galaxy. No wonder, such creatures, formed by highly condensed clusters of transversal waves in many nested dimensions would prefer the transversal waves as the preferred (if not only one..) way of causal reality, while ignoring the other mechanisms of information spreading. Such stance is analogous to belief, the droplet cloud coming from cup of tea is the only form of water vapor, just because it's most apparent. This aspect makes the Aether concept so fairy, volatile , difficult to grasp by many people: the only way, by which the creatures formed by density gradients can interact with its environment are just the density gradients, so they've problem to imagine, the observable density fluctuations are just a visible top of reality iceberg.

## pátek 12. září 2008

### Aether and Lorentz invariance

The concept of Lorentz invariance is basic postulate of special relativity theory and one of most deeply misunderstood concepts of Aether theory, being considered incompatible with relativity in general. The true is, the light speed invariance can be derived easily from Maxwell's Aether theory of light, based on transversal wave spreading. As I demonstrated already, the ability of luminiferous Aether to spread the light of whatever energy density effectively implies the very dense environment and the transversal character of energy spreading (which is required for casual spreading of information) in it, because the sparse Aether cannot spread the EM waves of whatever energy density. Therefore the famous Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) shouldn't be used for disapproval of Aether theory - but for effective confirmation of it, instead. It shoud be noted, with contrary to widespread belief the negative result of MMX cannot serve as a confirmation of relativity, because the light speed invariance isn't theorem, but a postulate (i.e. sort of axiomatic tautology) in special relativity theory.

Another general source of Aether misunderstanding is the common belief, the concept of particle environment isn't compatible with light speed invariance and the relativistic physics in general. This is nonsense, because the common interpretation of Galileo transform isn't compatible with relativistic Lorentz transform. The spreading of sound wave in air cannot be considered as analogy of light spreading in vacuum, until we consider the sound wave as the only source of information including the time and distance intervals measurement, i.e. by the same way, like during light spreading in vacuum. The common understanding of wave spreading in particle medium usually involves at least TWO kind of waves (the light wave, used for time/distance measurement and the studied/observed wave itself), while during light spreading in vacuum the only kind of energy spreading can be considered (the light wave serves here both as the subject of observation, both the mean of observation). This general inconsistency in experiment interpretation leads to the (false) conclusion, the Newtonian mechanics and the invariance of energy wave speed in particle environment is incompatible with the light speed invariance (and the relativity theory in general). As we can see, it's just a result of fundamental inconsistency of experimental arrangement, instead. Therefore MMX cannot give a positive result, simply because it’s virtually impossible to detect every environment just by it’s waves. If some particle is serving for wave spreading, it cannot be observed just by this wave and nothing very strange is about. No object can serve as a mean of it’s own observation and the inner and outer perspectives cannot be mixed.

The similar mistake consists in widespread belief, the absence of reference frame excludes the existence of luminiferous Aether, the particle environment in general. In fact, no particle in such environment cannot serve as an subject of observation and the mean of observation at the same time, therefore the absence of reference frame is the natural consequence of energy wave spreading inside of such environment, if we make sure, the same kind of wave is serving as object and mean of observation, i.e. by the same way, like during light spreading in vacuum. As the waves in particle environment are mixture of longitudinal and transversal waves in general, we can follow the above rule and the absence of reference frame most efficiently at the cases, when only transversal wave spreading prevails - for example at the case of capillary waves spreading along water surface, which is driven by surface tension (nearly) completely. With respect of these waves the water surface is behaving like thin elastic membrane with (nearly) no underwater (motion/reference frame) at all - so we can see clearly, the transversal wave spreading in particle environment is really background independent and no additional postulates are required to consider here.

By analogous way, we cannot observe the water surface by using of water waves and nothing very strange is about. The water surface will always appear as a void, empty space from surface waves perspective, because it just serves as an environment for these waves. The common observation of water waves by light waves cannot serve as a direct analogy of observation of light waves by using waves in vacuum, simply because in vacuum only one kind of waves can be always involved in experiment - the waves of light. So here’s nothing strange about different results of "classical physics" experiments, which were made in different arrangement(s). This doesn’t mean of course, the classical mechanics differs from reality conceptually - it just means, we aren’t observing wave phenomena by the same way, like during experiments in vacuum - that’s all. The Lorentz invariance (symmetry) of Aether is valid as long the transversal character of wave spreading is retained. Because the transversal wave spreading is the only causal way of information spreading considered for human creatures, the Lorentz invariance follows automatically from unitary time arrow and vice-versa: the quantum uncertainty related to multiplicity of time arrows and longitudinal energy wave spreading is equivalent to Lorentz symmetry violation.

Note that the transversal wave is the case, where the energy spreads by the slowest speed through such environment, i.e. here's a minimum of the celerity / wavelength dependence. This makes the environment as large, as possible from internal observer perspective - so we can say, the Universe appears so large for us just because of transversal character of light spreading. It's somewhat surprising, these fundamental connections were revealed after nearly four hundred years after postulation of particle luminiferous Aether concept by R. Descartes (1644) and Ch. Huygens (1678) on behalf of positivistic, ad-hoced (i.e. belief based) consideration of relativistic postulates.

"All our attempts to make ether real failed. It revealed neither its mechanical construction nor absolute motion. Nothing remained of all the properties of the ether except that for which it was invented, i.e., its ability to transmit electromagnetic waves. Our attempts to discover the properties of the ether led to difficulties and contradictions. After such bad experiences, this is the moment to forget the ether completely and to try never to mention its name."(The Evolution of Physics Einstein 1938)

## úterý 9. září 2008

### Sacred geometry and Aether concept

The odd/atemporal/male (bosonic) symmetry alternates the even/temporal/female (fermionic) one during mutual heterosis. The most symmetric level of particle compactification possible leads to the solid dodecahedral structure of foam, assigned to Prana in Vedantic philosophy ("Aether" or vacuum). the foam bubbles can be approximated by platonic solids, where the dodecahedron is the most complex one in 3D space. The dark matter foam structure and E8 Lie group exhibits this symmetry too. The five-fold (A5) rotational symmetry of icosahedron serves as a symbol of water in sacred geometry of five elements in accordance to icosahedron symmetry of fluids, the glass and water clusters in particular.

The dodecahedron foam is the most regular lattice, which we can met inside of our 3D Universe generation and the number of condensation steps required for its formation is quite limited. Therefore the geometry of real foam driven by principle of least action remain close to dodecahedron structure. It still doesn't fit the 3D space completely, though - which is the reason, why M-theory operates in 10-dimensional space. The another condensation inside of dodecahedron will lead to cubic structure again and we can achieve the same structure by topological inversion of this structure, which follows to AdS5/CFT4 correspondence. The temperature of CMB (i.e. the interior of Universe) corresponds the Hawking radiation of black hole, whose lifespan corresponds the age of our Universe generation and the mass density of which corresponds energy density of vacuum (i.e. the 3rd power of Planck constant for 3D space perspective).

### Logo of Aether Wave Theory

Tha resulting chain of vortices is sometimes called the Von Kármán street. Albeit the turbulence is generally connected with energy dissipation, the formation of vortex lattice decreases the friction in the surface layer instead, thus making the environment a bit superfluous by the same way, like the formation of quantized vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates. Therefore the AWT logo illustrates the superfluous nature of vacuum, too. Note the possible "extraterresterial origin" of graphics, created on July 27, 2001 in Rybury/Tann Hill, England...;-)

### Aether and the definition of time

In AWT the existence of space-time follows from asymmetry between spatial and time dimensions, which was created during Universe inflation. We can expect, from sufficiently distant perspective this asymmetry will be replaced by another one, because Universe is arranged randomly. By AWT the time is asymmetric, because it’s formed by density gradient of Aether. In analogy to local space-time with water surface, the space dimensions are the directions parallel with water surface, while the time is the direction normal (perpendicular) to this surface gradient - as such it’s always oriented from past to future (it exhibit's an "arrow").

In my understanding, inside our generation of observable Universe a two reciprocal time dimensions are dominant, related by 1:10{+500} duality at 1.27 cm scale. In AWT object is moving in time dimension, when it expands (to past) or collapses (to past) above 1.27 cm scale. For objects smaller then 1.27 cm the direction of both time arrow becomes reversed. For example diffusion, evaporation and/or condensation is a travel accros time dimension(s), as it requires transfer of energy (usually in form of inertial acelleration) without general change of spatial location.

## pondělí 8. září 2008

### E8 Lie group and Aether theory

Therefore the E8 Lie group solves the trivial question: "

*Which structure should have the tightest lattice of particles, exchanged/formed by another particles*?

*".*And such question has perfect meaning even from classical physics point of view! Such question has a perfect meaning in theory, describing the most dense structure of inertial particles, which we can ever imagine, i.e. the interior of black hole. AWT inteprets a rotation of Lie group in general reference frame, which leads to another particle generation as a Penrose-Terrell effect, formalized in Wick rotation approach.

### Correspondence of AWT and other theories

The Aether Wave Theory is closely related to Constructal theory, Process Physics, Unparticle Physics and Emergence Theory - it can serve as the conceptual base of all these theories. The concept of Aether foam covers the quantum foam or spin network of LQG theory, the protosimplex lattice of Heim theory or the recent string net liquid concept. And the non-linear properties of Aether foam can reconcile the dual aspects of general relativity and quantum mechanics and quantum field theories (the free fermion models of string field theories in particular). As a particle theory the AWT is closely related to Garett's E8 group theory, because the Lie E8 group describes the tightest structure of hypersphere particles, exchanged by another particles, recursively.

If all these theories are relevant each other - as the correspondence principle requires - here must exist some common connecting point/concept and we are forced to find it, because it's unacceptable to have so many theories, which are incompatible each other. Therefore the AWT isn't limited to realm of physics, as it describes the general connections/interactions inside of all multicomponent systems, including the biology and sociology and theories of information spreading.

## neděle 7. září 2008

### Mass of photon

By AWT every artifact with positive curvature should have a positive (i.e. nonezero) rest mass and the photon - being an isolated particle - is no exception. The particle like character of photons can be observed easily during spreading of gamma rays in spark chamber or by scintillator in spinthariscope, where they're behaving like distinst well defined particles ("scintilla" means "spark" in Greek). Therefore it's nothing strange, if photon increases mass of resonator, whenever it gets trapped into it - as we can observe by mass spectrometer during excitation of atom nuclei, for example.

The theoretical rest mass of photon can be extrapolated as a dynamic mass of photon, when the (wavelength of) photon becomes so large, it will fit the whole observable Universe, so that the photon cannot move and it stay at rest in it. This value is incredibly low, though and it can be estimated by using of

*E=hν*formula to some 10E-61 kg. Albeit low, it can result into observable violation of Compton law at Planck scale (pair formation) and into light speed invariance violation at cosmic scale (for example by polarization of microwaves by vacuum and by dispersion of gamma rays, as observed by GZK limit or by MAGIC telescope during Mkn 501 flash).

The effective rest mass of photon could become even higher (~10E-17 kg), if we consider, the photons, whose wavelength is longer then human scale would dissapear in the noise of cosmic microwave backround (CMB) radiation, where only entangled light waves can spread effectivelly. In adition, photons of wavelength larger the human / CMB scale (~1.7 cm) are behaving rather like weak holes in the ocean of CMB photons, so they should be expelled by them in gravity field, instead.

The general problem in misunderstanding of special relativity consist in mixing of light and photon concepts. Light wave can be local, but the photon isn't never quite local thing, it has a finite (albeit typically quite small) size. It means, only light wave can move by speed of light, but not photon. For wavelength comparable to CMB radiation the light can consist only from waves, but not photons, because these size of photons are comparable to CMB noise size, so they cannot be distinguished from it. For longer wavelengths, then those of CMB the negative rest mass photons can be postulated, and the speed of such "negative curvature" photons becomes superluminal - the character of such waves will converge to longitudinal gravitational waves, which are inherently superluminal. The superluminal portion of microwave light enables to escape it from black hole as a Hawking radiation for example, which makes the whole concept testable.

"All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it,

but he is mistaken." (Albert Einstein, 1954)

### Aether and quantum mechanics

*It is safe to say that nobody understands quantum mechanics*".

John Wheeler: "

*If you are not completely confused by quantum mechanics, you do not understand it*."

Roger Penrose: "

*Quantum mechanics makes absolutely no sense*." (via phys.wp.com)

OK. The interpretation of quantum mechanics by Aether Wave Theory is easy and it's based on the foam behavior of Aether fluctuations, which are getting more dense after introduction of some energy by the same way, like soap foam during shaking inside of evacuated vessel. This behavior can be modeled easily by common computer and you can play with it by using of interactive Java applet. Note the similarity of foam behavior and dynamic mesh approach, used in numerical simulations.