pondělí 29. prosince 2008
The idea of Boltzmann Brain (BB) was originated by unnamed assistant of L. Boltzmann, who conjectured, whole Universe is sort of especially huge and complex, but still quite randomly formed fluctuation inside of chaotic particle environment. Such Universe could enable the spontaneous formation (evolution) of hypothesized self-aware entity which arises due to random fluctuations out of a state of chaos. It's apparent, this conjecture follows the dense Aether concept of AWT so closely, so that BB appears to be a integral part of it. No wonder, BB concept is recently gaining interests of mainstream physics, which gradually saturates all possibilities, how to understand the Universe in classical positivistic way based on formal sequential logic.
The purpose of this post is to explain the conceptual mistake of seeming BB paradox, which is arguing, if we are just a low-entropy fluctuation in a high-entropy world, then virtually everything in the Universe should appear in a disordered state without a consistent history. Such argument is the consequence of deep misunderstanding of physical reality, because the highly ordered states cannot interact with low ordered states by the same (i.e. causual) way, like with each other mutually. After all, my struggles in explanation of AWT concept to the rest of society illustrates this problem clearly. Similia similibus affecter, only similar things can influent each other similarly - so we cannot exchange information with less or more conscious creatures easily due the dispersion and total reflection phenomena of casual energy spreading.
From AWT perspective people are driven by symmetric (flat) bra(i)nes comprising of a large, but convoluted time dimension. Just because human brain is product of long term evolution, it cannot interact with atemporal density fluctuations well. It's completely a symmetry problem, following from laws of inertial energy spreading inside of large particle system. The flat density fluctuations of Aether (i.e. gradients or "branes") can interact with those symmetrical only temporarily in longitudinal waves. Such interactions are only weak and/or short distance ones. The long distance atemporal interactions would require the transversal waves instead, which can be produced/exchanges just by another flat branes - end of story.
Briefly speaking, the fact we aren't seeing the whole Universe chaotic consist just in fact, such chaos interact by quite weak way in gravity waves or short distance interactions with us. Whole the vacuum is full of such disordered states, which we cannot see, just because we are special flat brane (a density gradient of fluctuation) involving a large amount of compacted time dimensions. So that we are perceiving these highly entropic states as a empty space-time, i.e. as a vacuum only, thus ignoring whole such part of reality completelly.
While for primitive organisms the Universe appears small, for well developed creatures, which are product of long term evolution of many mutations such Universe appears large. So we can imagine the causal portion of such chaotic system like nested foam or fractal tree or nested foam/sponge, the complexity of which increases with scale together with its ability to interact with indeterministic portion of Universe. By AWT the Universe can be modeled by dense system of many nested fluctuations and after then the scope, in which every fluctuation can interact and observe it neighborhood simply depend on space-time scale (the number of states/mutations involved). It means, the density fluctuations of every sufficiently large volume of such particle system are becomes sufficiently complex to interact with the rest and to observe it as a Universe by the same way, like tiny density fluctuations can interact with its neighborhood inside of dense gas.
BB concept makes the occurrence of intelligent life rather undeniable, but such civilizations should be dispersed regularly through space-time, i.e. along flat spatial branes (surface medium sized planets inside of medium sized galaxies, enabling sufficient long term evolution). The flatness of space artifacts increases the probability of long term evolution due the space-time symmetry reasons. With respect to AWT definition of time we can see again, Aether concept simplifies the understanding of BB concept a lot.
neděle 28. prosince 2008
It can be demonstrated easily, QM is dual to relativity via duality of gravity to omnidirectional universe expansion. It's not so well known (mainstream science covers it), quantum mechanics suffers serious experimental problem in general, because it predicts, every free particle should expand into infinite volume by solution of time dependent Schrödinger equation. This discrepancy can be explained by potential of gravity field, which keeps the particle "at place". The problem is, gravity itself cannot be derived from QM by any way. The omnidirectional collapse of space-time would have the very same effect, though.
GR suffers the very dual problem, as the J.A.Wheeler has demonstrated by geon concept (1) of geometrodynamics. Geon is hypothetical closed artifact, formed just by gravity waves spreading by graviton field. Every particle or black hole can be considered a geon from certain perspective. Albeit from GR follows, such geon should collapse into singularity by its own gravity, which can be prevented by omnidirectional space-time expansion. By such way, validity of GR can be saved by concept of space-time expansion by the same way, like validity of QM depends on space-time collapse.
This apparent paradox can be reconciled by concept of black hole/gravastar (i.e. graviton or "dark energy" star), forming our Universe generation. The gravitational collapse of such object is followed by gradual increasing of its internal density, which manifest itself as a omnidirectional space-time expansion from internal observer perspective, i.e. perspective of observer, which is formed by standing waves of such environment. The single concept can therefore explain the conceptual problems of both GR, both QM at the same moment.
By such way, we can understand the gravity action as an acceleration force in terms of omnidirectional expansion inside of Aether density gradient. Such gradient makes a gradient of expansion speed, i.e. the gravity force. Such approach has even it's own testable predictions, for example in slowing of speed of light or by gradual expansion and dissolving of kilogram/meter prototypes from long-term perspective (1, 2, 3) and its closely related to dark matter and dark energy phenomena.
Now we can understand as well, why numeric prediction of cosmological constant by GR differs by two hundreds orders of magnitude from those predicted by QM. QM follows the model of collapsing universe, while GR considers the concept of expanding universe on background.
sobota 27. prosince 2008
Being quite ancient, emergence concept has no single author, but the most significant proponent of this approach is Standford physicist R. Laughlin, particularly due his personal experience with emergent high pressure phenomena during nuclear research in Livermore. In his popular book "A Different Universe: Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down" (2005) he argues for emergence as a replacement for reductionism in accordance to 1972 article by Phil W. Anderson More is different, extended later by preprint of Mile Gu et all More really is different.
Prof. Laughing's stance can be understood by the way, it has no meaning to try to extrapolate the theories too far, until we don't understand their postulates well. It's not a reductionists stance, rather sort of logical optimization of approach. For example, when we start to develop a formal theory from two or more sets of mutually inconsistent postulates, we'll always finish in singular landscape of many possible solutions, because of poorly conditioned condition at the very beginning. Under such circumstances has no meaning to develop some extrapolations based on consecutive logic too deeply - we should rather develop the super-symmetric part of theory, based on parallelized approach, i.e. the intuition.
The conceptual basis of emergence in AWT is trivial and based on the fact, every entity of causal reality (a "particle") should be of positive curvature to remain observable, and the effects of surface curvature are cumulative, so that in every system of high number of such particles the total curvature leads to symmetry breaking and formation of new entities in less or more distant space-time perspective (1, 2). This remains valid for every set of entities of causal reality, based on consecutive logic, i.e. reality driven by single time arrow. From this point of view we can call the Aether model a theory of emergence and vice-versa, albeit I'm in doubt, whether the emergence paradigm can be understood without particle concept at all (and by Ed Witten the same could be said about the rest of string theorists, with honour exception of L. Motl and a few others).
The practical consequence of emergence in physics is every process involving so called spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), which is not understood by the same way, like the emergence itself by mainstream physics. As a practical example of SSB can serve every phase transform, the condensation in particular. The nested condensation of supercritical fluid can serve as an iconic example of emergence phenomena, on which whole the AWT is based.
We can met with emergence phenomena in many places in psychology, sociology and biology. A classical example of emergent process is so called imagination - i.e. the creative process of "new" ideas involving phase transforms of waves of electrochemical activity inside of human brain. Because we understand the Universe by mean of ideas, it's nothing strange, we can understood it by mean of emergence as well. The theory of prime number, Fibonacci serii and modular forms are the main areas of emergence theory in math, Penrose tiles in geometry.
In art the manifestation of emergence is manifested by so called serigraphy, i.e. the artistic approach based on repetition of elements based on stencil technique of katazome Japanese art. Albeit the most advantage examples of emergent aspects we can met in quasicrystalline structures used in Islamic art and architecture in particular, which are used in metamaterial and terrahertz technologies. The most famous promoter of serigraphy in modern art is Andy Warhol. The emergence principle is contained in fact, the repetetive application of elements brings new quality into artistic testimonial. In this sense, the violation of symmetry in serigraphy has a particular impact due its apparent evolutionary aspect: people usually prefers the patterns, which are enabling further evolution of ideas and perception, so they can become a part of transformation process.
Personally, while such theory appears appealing from many reasons and we can see many connections to ancient Aether theories apparently, personally I'm in doubt, just the neutrinos are fundamental particles, responsible for gravity action, space-time (curvature) the less. By such theories neutrinos are considered to play role of gravitons or even Aether particles - i.e. much more fundamental particles, then neutrinos. Neutrinos are particle exhibiting a weak force, which is explained by AWT like manifestation of surface tension, analogous to repulsive force of tiny mercury droplets, which are composed by even much smaller particles. In addition, if neutrinos are forming gravity force, they should remain very invariant to it. Such neutrinos not only should pass the event horizon of black holes freely, their concentration should form the gravity field itself and gravity waves should be formed by waves of neutrino concentration. After then the event horizon of black holes should be formed by pure neutron fluid and black holes should be a neutrino stars. Inside of neutrino stars no gravity should appear at all, which violates the concept of daughter singularities inside them. While even AWT considers, some neutrinos could pass event horizon of black holes, observed neutrino flux emanated by black holes is generally much weaker.
In addition, the high density of neutrinos in vacuum brings another conceptual problems. By contemporary theories the mass of neutrinos accounts for some 5% of total mass of dark matter, i.e. the same portion, like photons of light. The neutrino gravity model would require such portion to become a much higher to explain a large gravity field, thus violating the concept of dark matter with repulsive behavior and gravitational lensing at the same moment.
In addition, high concentration of primordial neutrino flux makes the measurement of solar neutrino flux impossible, while we can still measure it with precision, sufficient for detection of neutron oscillations (we cannot measure the flux of water molecules, if such molecules are forming water at the same moment). From all these reasons is apparent, the vacuum must be formed by much smaller and more dense particles than neutrinos. Because we can see no apparent lower limit for Aether particle size, AWT is assuming, Aether particles are infinitely small, thus making Aether (particle field forming vacuum) universal, but abstract concept.
The neutrino based gravity theory can serve as an example of theory, which can be disproved easier by predicate logic, then by formal math, because it behaves in many aspects like epicycles theory of deBrahe, which supplies many predictions consistent with heliocentric model. Because of conceptual richness of Aether model, such emergent theory can even supply a new testable predictions, because it brings a new insights into existing model of gravity (a density gradient concept in particular). If nothing else, such theory is pleasant by its adherence to Occam razor principle, because it doesn't introduce a new concepts into physics - it just combines the well known ones. But as we can see on the example of Ptolemy's model (which follows the Occam's razor principle apparently) - even such approach can become misleading from less or more distant perspective.
Albert Einstein: "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler."
Classical explanation of Olber's paradox is, the dark matter between stars prohibits us to see the light of stars filling whole night sky. Such explanation is relevant for most distant active gallactic nuclei (AGN), observable only in infrared due the dust cover (so called the spherical dust galaxies revealed by Spitzer infrared telescope).
If we consider the finite speed of light, then the fact night sky is black would mean, the Universe can be larger, then the finite speed of light allows. Big Bang theory considers, light emanated by primordial matter was of very high frequency, therefore it can be observed as a CMB by now. If we consider cosmological principle of uniform isotropic universe, then the presence of CMB supports rather idea of infinitely large Universe, from which only the visible portion of light can be perceived. Radiofrequency part of CMB is forming a thermal noise of matter at the zero temperature (ZPE). As we can see, Olber's paradox cannot be used as an evidence of finite Universe and Big Bang theory reliably. AWT is assuming, observable Universe generation appears like rather common AGN from outer perspective, therefore our Universe doesn't differs very much from another quasars (white holes), which are observable inside of our Universe by Copernican principle.
neděle 14. prosince 2008
By AWT the quantum foam is of natural evolutionary character, because the density fluctuations of foam are behaving like tiny optical lenses, they're focusing energy waves into itself like food while competing mutually, so that just the most stable and dense fluctuations can survive from long perspective. From this perspective whole Universe appears to be of the same character, being formed by giant fluctuation of Aether foam, evolved during long Universe history into its present state. The concept of Universe evolution was disputed in notion of expyrotic and multiverse bubble cosmology, Darwinian aspects of Universe evolution were popularized by Lee Smolin in his "Theory of Cosmological Natural Selection" on background of causal evolution of spin networks.
By AWT the concept of Universe evolution is dual to the anthropic principle, the fine-tuned Universe principle in particular by which the Universe appears as the best place adopted for human life evolution due the especially well balanced combination of physical constants. As such it serves as on of main arguments for creationism, which is considered as a dual theory to evolution by AWT. Deeper insight learn us, every product of long term evolution will consider its environment well balanced and nothing very special is about it.
For example sharks are so well adopted to the life at the bottom of ocean due their long term evolution, so they can start to believe in "selachimorphacentric" principle easily: they're condemned to believe in "Big Shark" divinity, which has created the bottom of oceans especially well balanced and suited to shark needs. Surprisingly enough, such trivial insight wasn't never mentioned in connection to anthropic principle by my information, while it's quite apparent and it renders whole anthropic principle a bit redundant on behalf of evolutionary theory by my opinion.
sobota 6. prosince 2008
By AWT vacuum has a foamy structure of Aether density fluctuations and every object is moving through vacuum foam like boat or fish beneath water surface. Such fish creates a typical undulations of water surface - a ripples, which are always perpendicular to the fish motion direction. In quantum physics such undulations are called de-Broglie wave.
At the water surface, the surface waves are increasing a density of density fluctuations, thus leading into formation of turbulence. In vacuum, such shaking increases a density of vacuum foam in direction, by which particle is moving, so that the speed of light remains invariant for such object. From outside perspective we could observe a relativistic contraction of such object. This connection illustrates a close relation of quantum mechanics and relativity:
Note that the deBroglie wave propagates through vacuum by speed of light, it always advances particle location like ripples spreading from swimming duck. While pin-point particle cannot pass through both slits at the single moment apparently, its deBroglie wave can do that without problem under formation formation of typical flabelliform interference patterns.
Because every shaking makes vacuum foam more dense, the vacuum density becomes non-uniformly distributed around particle, when passing through double slit. This affects particle motion accordingly, because by AWT every particle consist of standing wave packet and it propagates along foam branes like wave. All waves are focused by more dense environment, so that path of particle motion prefers the directions of flabelliform patterns. At the case of repeated experiment, the particle traveling through random undulations of vacuum foam follows the wave interference patterns at target. Note, that such interpretation doesn't require mutual interaction of individual particles during experiment - path of particle spreading remains affected by interference even at the case, when only single particle gets involved into experiment.
úterý 2. prosince 2008
Fortunately, it's rather easy to imagine the behavior of infinitely dense particle system, because it can be modeled by dense gas system or cold plasma crystals, both modeled by using of computers and nested foam structure of neural network is adapted to parallel processing (an intuition), being an Aeter simulator. The fundamental system here is ideal gas, following Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution in infinite number of dimensions. The extrapolation of density fluctuations to infinite density leads to concept of Boltzmann brain, proposed by assistant of Ludwig Boltzmann reportedly. By this idea whole universe appears a single giant fluctuation of Aether. Surprisingly, this model is very well defined and conditioned, because here's the only way, by which such dense gas can condense into more complex structures. Therefore we can expect, with increasing gas density the solution would converge by well defined way, the only problem is, we can model such system with limited precision by real systems or computers by using of contemporary technology. In this post we can just emphasize some common aspects of very dense particle system behavior.
The most fundamental aspect of observable reality is hidden in question, how we can see at least something from infinitely dense chaos? The reason is somewhat anthropic: we are highly causal phase of Aether borrowed from long term causal evolution, so we can see just a causal portion of chaos (this one mediated by transversal waves) and such portion is infinitely tiny with compare to rest of chaos: the infinitely small portion of infinitely huge and dense environment is just the observable part of reality. Inside of such small portion of reality the information can propagate by the limited speed (the speed of light in particular), so we can see just a limited number of different states of chaos in each moment. The limited number of chaos is always stochastic by the same way, like dense field of limited number of points consisting of limited number of colors: a scale invariant density fluctuations appears here:
As the result, the particle concept in it's true singular nature of zero dimensional objects colliding in infinitely dimensional space is limited just to very fundamental level of Aether, which remains unreachable for causal observation by definition. All other parts of reality will be composed by less or more dense particle fluctuations, which are having a character of scale invariant nested density fluctuations (unparticles), similar to fractal clouds and/or Perlin noise, composed of octals (Perlin noise is fundamental fractal here):
The observation through thick layer of Aether would lead into gradual dispersion of transversal waves and the formation of density gradients and/or even singularities, which will manifests itself like phase transform with respect to time dimension. With increasing gradient density the blobby character of density fluctuations will change into dense nested foam of 1D/2D strings and membranes, because only sharpest gradients can be distinguished from noise here. This transform is illustrated by above picture. The density of foam will increase and at the certain moment it will form a continuum, inside which new generation of density fluctuations will emerge. We can observe this structure inside of dark matter streaks, which are demonstrating, how the vacuum should appear at the Planck scale level as well.
This is because of another important aspect of Aether foam: every reality can be perceived by local observer from at least two points of view: "inner" (insintric) and "outer" (exsintric) one (every truth has two sides, here). In more general perspective these points of view will become fragmented into plural ones in analogy to structure of Aether foam itself. The existence of multiple perspectives is trivial consequence of character of information spreading, which can be modeled by energy spreading in transversal waves through dense soap foam. When we place a light source inside of bucket into foam, we can observe, the light will penetrate whole volume, so that the inner surface of bucket will remain illuminated by the same way, like this outer one - the light spreading will become omnipresent here:
Practical consequence of this aspect of Aether behavior is, every density fluctuation will interact with the neighboring fluctuations by at least two ways: like as it would being part of them (insintric perspective), both like it would be outside of them (exsintric perspective). These two ways of interactions will always interfere in stable given ratio, thus forming of causal base of so called quantization. This is an important aspect of chaos driven reality: we should explain, not only why everything differs each other, but the existence of analogies and classes as well: i.e. the fact, why certain fundamental parts of reality appears so similar each other (atoms, elementary particles, living species, large black holes and galaxies). i.e. quantization of matter and energy.
Testable consequence of dual nature of reality is supersymmetry and self-similarity of Universe at Planck and cosmological scales: the Universe appears as being formed by itself from long-term distance perspective, the structure of quantum foam is similar in many aspects to streaks of dark matter, the Universe appears like interior of black hole being observed from outside at the same time, the mass/energy density of vacuum corresponds the mass/energy density of black holes, the cosmic microwave background corresponds the Hawking radiation of black hole, whose lifespan corresponds the Universe age, and so on. Later we can discuss some practical consequences of supersymmetry duality on the examples/analogies of evolutionary biology and sociology.