sobota 14. března 2009

Is dark matter composed of antimatter?

The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry was a struggling problem of mainstream physics and cosmology for many years. By AWT antimatter never disappear from observable Universe, it was only finely divided (evaporated) into streaks of dark matter. These streaks are surrounding all massive bodies, including galaxies and stars, so that the concentration of antiparticles is especially easy to detect around black holes at the centers of most large galaxies. This prediction was presented a two years before and now recent ATIC and PAMELA observations seems to support it, while interpreting the source as a result of WIMPS annihilation.

AWT explanation doesn't consider WIMPS mechanism though, because WIMPS are supersymmetric bosons mediating surface tensions forces of strangeletes, i.e. large dense clusters of particles, which are supposed to form dark matter here. Such clusters would be of primordial origin, i.e. something like microscopic black holes in the S1/Z2 Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld model, which currently belongs into unverified hypothesis, as the only stable strangelets-like particles known so far are the atom nuclei. It's highly improbable, swarms of such thingies would be responsible for observed dark matter effects like gravitational lensing or Pioneer anomaly and even if they would exist, it's not necessary to consider their bosons (i.e. WIMPS) as the main source of dark matter gravitation - because no WIMP can exist standalone without its superpartner. Such explanation therefore just illustrates deep conceptual confusion of mainstream physics, which is overspecialized, so it cannot confront & reconcile inconsistently labeled ideas coming from various areas of physics mutually.

Instead of this, AWT explains mechanism of primordial origin of antimatter more naturally. We can consider black holes as a dense mixture of hot matter and antimatter in the form of graviton foam, analogous to foam of density fluctuations, formed briefly after condensation of supercritical fluid. In this foam particles are foam excitations are tied to inner surface gradients of foam bubbles, while the antiparticles are formed by outer surface of membranes (string theory uses a concept of string loops attached to branes, instead). But these particle gradients are never quite equivalent: the inner gradient are always of smaller diameter and higher curvature, therefore they're more stable, then the outer surface gradients. This is a general consequence of fact, we are always smaller, then the observable Universe generation, despite how far we can observe it, so that the particles forming environment are always of opposite chirality with compare to particles forming an objects in it.

Currently quantum foam forming vacuum is expanded heavily and its bubbles are formed by very thin walls, so here's rather subtle difference between particles and antiparticles behavior, as characterized by so called CP symmetry violation - but at the beginning of universe the situation was completely different. Graviton foam was very dense there and it was formed by rather spherical bubbles with thick walls. Inside of such foam the particles of antimatter were transformed into particles of matter readily, by the same way, like small bubbles in foam are collapsing on behalf of those larger ones or small flakes of snow sublime on behalf of large crystals, thus making snow "grainy". If such mixture would cool slowly, it would transform completely back into radiation again - but we were lucky: due the fast expansion of space-time during inflation era a subtle portion of matter and antimatter particles was left unreacted, so we are still here, being surrounded by voluminous streaks of dark matter composed of sparse unreacted particles of matter and antimatter separated by EM charge interactions against gravitational collapse (note the connection of AWT to H. Alfven's ambiplasma cosmology here.).

Because their negative curvature, the antiparticles tends to move toward gravity field so it separates from resulting condensate of matter and surrounds it by the same way, like particles forming the outer gradient of soap bubble membrane are surrounding those, which are forming inner surface of it. Standard model in combination with inflationary cosmology provides an mainstream explanation of this evolution. At the very beginning of Universe was very dense, so that weak nuclear force responsible for matter-antimatter interaction was a large distance interaction here. Because as we know, the matter annihilate with antimatter in direct contact, i.e. whenever weak interaction takes place, matter was annihilated with matter readily. But because the Universe expanded fast during inflation, weak nuclear force has become a short distance interaction (and it remained until now) - so that subtle portion of antimatter particles remained separated from the rest of matter safely.

The similar phenomena occurs during accretion of matter and during explosions of collapsars, i.e. the quasars, neutron and quark stars. While matter and antimatter annihilate in direct contact under formation of gamma radiation (i.e. EM field), in abundance of strong electromagnetic or gravitational field this process can be reversed under so called matter-antimatter pairs production. Strong magnetic field causes a separation of resulting particles and antiparticles near magnetars and spinning black hole, whereas gravity field is less effective in doing this in general, but it can separate even particles, which are differing just by their lepton charge, not only EM charge. In general, massive particles are attracted to inner part of gravity field gradient of positive curvature, whereas antiparticles were attracted by field gradient after its inflexion point, i.e. by its negative curvature. This resulted into separation of matter and antimatter particles. Note that the same mechanism (only applied to different dimensional scale) could explain chirality distribution, observed in nearby galaxies along streaks of dark matter and polarization of CMB.

While such process appears completely different from perspective of classical physics, it has a number of analogies in it, in fact, because it's driven by curvature of surface gradients in all cases. During fast condensation a mixture of water droplets of different sizes appears. But the smaller droplets have always a higher tension of vapor, so they're evaporating of behalf of these larger ones. When such condensation occurs as a consequence of fast vapor expansion (for example in Wilson cloud chamber expanded by piston), then the smaller droplets travels at the large distance from center of expansion, until they don't evaporate completely. After then they're forming an areas of more saturated vapor surrounding more "lucky" droplets, which have condensed at rest and which tends to evaporate. By AWT the dimensional scale, separating the matter evaporation from condensation roughly corresponds the human dimensional scale and wavelength of CMB photons, as it brings the highest complexity into Universe evolution. Particles smaller then CMB photons would condense into particles of matter, whereas the larger particle would expand into streaks of dark matter. From certain point of view antimatter is livin in inverse/reciprocal time arrow inside of observable Universe - it evaporates while the normal matter condenses, which is the reason, why the antimatter is finely dispersed over whole Universe.

The above example can be generalized in terms of unsteady-state thermodynamics, as described by Le Chattelier principle. For example, when we cool sooting candle flame by blowing of cold wind or by insertion of cold teaspoon, we can obtain a thin layer of soot. In this analogy, the flame corresponds the collapsar radiating an energy and the soot and oxygen are analogy of common matter and antimatter. As we know, these particles of these components reacts readily in mutual contact (i.e. they're "annihilate") - but when separated fast from flame by cooling of mixture or by adiabatic expansion of environment, they can remain intact and fast cooling freezes this metastable equilibrium on behalf of presence of the original components.

By AWT we can find an analogies to matter-antimatter separation even in biological and social evolution, where exist so called division of labor between different molecules and sexes, which are exhibiting a sort of chirality, too. AWT model explains, why this chirality was important during life formation in liposomes at human scale. Currently energy density of society is relatively high, which enables a high level of emancipation. But at the very beginning of human society the survival / fitness of community has depended on division of labor heavily, so today men are traveling for jobs at distance, while women are working near their homes - although they're not required to do so. But despite of low level of symmetry violation the complete exchange of male/female roles would lead to annihilation of social structures (i.e. family condensate in particular) by the same way, like switching of role left-handed proteins and right-handed sugars would lead to death of most of living organisms immediately. These analogies help us to understand, how deeply the chirality is working inside of our Universe at different dimensional scales.

AWT considers the existence of chirality as a byproduct of Universe inflation, i.e. the consequence of its fast cooling after brane collision, but such process occurs analogously at most dimensional scales, for example during collapse of stars and black holes, just in less or more pronounced way. The concept of omnidirectional Universe expansion enables to describe this process in terms of spatialized time, i.e. as a process of nonuniform propagation of transversal and longitudinal energy waves through hyperspace, but removal of space-time symmetry prohibits us in using of many temporal analogies, which could simplify the deeper understanding of this unsteady process.

We can just ask, why astronomers, who are looking for missing antimatter in Universe from the very beginning of BigBang theory (Lemaître 1931) didn't considered the posibility, dark matter may be composed of antimatter from the very beginning of dark matter observation (Fritz Zwicky, 1933). In another way - why publicity should pay scientists for seventy years of research of another explanations, if they ignore these most simplest one? This situation isn't very new here and it just illustrates, science needs a thorough public control by the same way, like every other branch of society. Arrogance of mainstream science proponents isn't in place here, as it often covers the incompetence.

3 komentáře:

  1. I am very impressed by both the timeliness and the thoroughness of this article. The understanding of the workings of antimatter and its place within the structure/origin of the Universe are quickly gaining momentum. PAMELA is churning out data and observations as we speak.

    This is all of very interest to myself as the author of a new cosmologic model that is centrally founded on a notion of gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter. The model appears to match with all observations of the Universe, including the preliminary data coming out of PAMELA.

    To view core arguments of the model go to
    Or, if you'd rather view a sometimes rowdy/bloody debate go to

  2. Thank you Hassan for your comment and invitation, I'll visit your discussion occassionaly.

    By AWT separation of chiral portions of matter is analogy to separation of chiral compounds by the inner and outer surface of liposome membranes during formation of life.

  3. Hi Zephir,

    Things have changed. I've moved focus to a more moderated and focused forum:

    And packaged up a "knol" for half the model at:

    As far as your AWT separation is concerned, I wonder if such folding could be tied to a self-assembly: whether that be that which is used by the nanotechnologist or that which could have occurred between matter and antimatter.


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