úterý 26. května 2009

AWT and particle model of quantum mechanics

By AWT Schrödinger equation describes elastic string (red line on the animation bellow), the mass density of which (blue line on the animation bellow) is proportional to energy density of string in each space/time interval (i.e. the Hamiltonian distribution) by mass-energy equivalence principle. Therefore many quantum phenomena can be illustrated by nonlinear elastic liquids, the supercritical fluid at multiple Lifshitz point or soap foam in particular. The inertia and elastic properties of water are subtle, but we can still observe macroscopic analogy of double slit experiment and quantum mechanic behavior at the case of tiny droplets, bouncing on undulating water surface. The direct connection of Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics (i.e. a correspondence principle) can be illustrated with computer simulations of elastic fluid composed of repulsing particles. Computing power of contemporary GPU's and parallel processors is sufficient to run such simulations of 300.000+ particles in real time.

On the simulation example bellow the density scale of resulting density fluctuations is exaggerated - so we can see clearly, how underwater density wave follows surface waves like so called probability function solution of time dependent Schrödinger equation. The underwater sound wave corresponds the gravitational wave in vacuum analogy, whereas the transversal surface wave corresponds the photon wave. We can see, the underwater wave spreads in much higher speed, then the surface waves, because of higher number of dimensions involved and they're behaving like dispersive tachyons of negative rest mass. The longitudinal character of underwater wave results in fast dispersion, though, so that such waves can mediate only short distance range interactions (Casimir force and weak nuclear force in particular).

The density fluctuations of underwater waves correspond wave packets at the water surface, where energy spreads in lower speed, so that the probability of surface waves occurrence increases here. In this way, underwater density fluctuations can model the probability function of quantum wave and as such they can serve as a model of photons. We can see, density of water layers increases with thickness, i.e. with potential energy content and it depends on kinetic energy of surface wave (i.e. the frequency) as well, i.e. by the same way, like Hamiltonian term of Schrödinger equation.

At the real situation, the density fluctuations of water are subtle, so that only surface wave can be observed here. Under relativistic situation, when we are forced to observe the water by its own waves exclusively (which is situation, analogous to observation in vacuum), then the surface waves would be unobservable for us via surface waves due the Bose-Einstein distribution of waves, which are penetrating mutually like ghosts (compare the picture above). So that everything, what we would be allowed to see are just the nondispersive wave packets, i.e. solitons, refracting and bouncing from inner walls of underwater density fluctuations like tiny gravitational lenses (wave particle duality). The actual state of surface waves would remain unachievable for us, from this the indeterministic and probabilistic character of quantum mechanics follows.

These connections are all quite simple and trivial - so that only deep misunderstanding of Michelson-Morley experiment and strong disbelief in Aether model has prohibited the mainstream science in recognition of emergent character of quantum mechanics before many years already.

sobota 23. května 2009

AWT and the fall of matter into black hole

By classical physics matter during fall into black hole doesn't radiate, until the density of matter flux becomes so large, the mutual collision and friction of matter particles doesn't lead into lost of matter into accretion radiation even before the matter can reach event horizon. From AWT follows, part of matter will be always converted into accretion radiation, because matter is composed of nested density fluctuations of Aether and forces, which are keeping these density fluctuations together depends solely on the density gradients / space-time curvature at different levels of particle nesting. We can compare the dissolving of matter into accretion radiation to the dispersion of wet lumps of sand after immersion into watter. On air, the capillary forces are able to keep grains of sand together, whereas bellow water surface not.

By AWT the gravity field of black hole behaves like density gradient of Aether, which results into fast disintegration of matter even at the case, when matter falls very slowly. Because during accretion most of matter will evaporate into energy, the pressure of radiation keeps the residual particles away from gravity field or it can even blow them away at the polar axis of black hole, where the ratio of gravity field and electromagnetic field becomes highest (polar jet of black holes may be considered as an exaggerated case of gravitational brightening observable at the case of giant spinning stars). This effectively prohibits the formation of giant black hole by accretion mechanism, and we are forced to consider primordial origin of giant black holes at the heart of most galaxies. Only black hole merging ("brane collision") can increase the mass of black hole at the moment, when it was created already. The excessive matter will be emanated in the form of less or more widespread polar jet of naked singularity or quasar, after then. Occasionally part of accretion radiation may condense at the equatorial plane of black hole, thus forming an accretion disk, which becomes the source of galactic matter and flat shape of most mature galaxies. After then, a similar process repeats inside of galaxies at stellar and planetary scales (Saturn rings), just in correspondingly faster way .

From the above mechanism follows, we can expect nested structure levels of event horizons inside of black hole, during which the character of radiated energy changes from weak to electromagnetic force. Only the most compact portion of hadron matter will survive the fall into black hole (axions and neutrinos) and these particles can pass event horizons rather freely like tachyons. The rest of matter in the form of photons, gluons and vector bosons will dissolve into graviton foam forming the interior of black hole. This foam can be perceived as CMB / Hawking radiation from outside.

We can consider, the matter of particle dissolved may condense inside of whole volume of black hole, thus restoring original entropy/information contained within particle. Ocassionally it could even reapear in the finelly divided form of CMB inside of our portion of observable Universe. But we could never follow such process in its entirety, because we would evaporate into accretion radiation a well before we could ever approach an event horizon. Which makes this description a somewhat abstract thing, testable only by dispersion of gravitational waves and/or neutrinos at distance.

pondělí 18. května 2009

AWT and one-to-many duality

In AWT the existence of dualities is inherent an it follows from concept of gradient driven reality, which the AWT is based on. As the most general example of duality we can consider one-to-many duality (1:N relation). It's a permutation group, which surjectivelly maps every local object (i.e. number of particular configurations of many conformal states possible inside of object) to its probability distribution at the rest of space (probability of the occurance of these states outside of object). Because Universe is composed of nested density fluctuations from human perspective, people are naturally one of these fluctuations and the scope of their interactions (so called "human scale") is placed near the center of dimensional/energy density scale of observable Universe. We can say, the people are living at the middle of space-time brane, i.e. near inflexion point of density gradient, forming observable Universe, because it's the place of maximal complexity (i.e. space-time events enabling mutations during mankind evolution).

One of observable consequences of this insight is, habitable zone is placed in the middle of Milky Way galaxy boundary and the habitable zone is placed in the middle of solar system. From the very same reason we can expect, life has evolved at the gas-fluid-solid phase interface as well.

One to many duality manifests by many other ways. One observation may be, the most distant objects at the Planck boundary of observable Universe scale (i.e. the future boundary with respect to omnidirectional space-time expansion) are one-to-many dual to objects, living at the opposite boundary, i.e. the cosmological one (i.e. the past boundary). The semicontinuos counterpart of one-to-many duality is the famous AdS/CFT duality. It means, common black holes are dual to elementary particles - especially if we consider quantum gravity models of black holes, not just these relativistic ones.

By AWT elementary particles are formed by clusters of many smaller particles (virtual quarks) as well. The overlapping interactions (distance forces) of individual particles collapsed is what makes the composite interactions in many dimensions for us. If we imagine black holes as a dense stars full of particles, the conceptual similarity becomes quite apparent here.

If we consider common black holes as a gravitons or gravitational waves stars (gravastars or gravitational geons), then the counterpart of leptons are neutrino stars and the counterpart of mesons are unstable quark stars, which are composed of many quarks. The counterparts of baryons, neutrons in particular are the stable neutron stars. The common atom nuclei are 1:N related to collapsed stars, so-called white dwars and the common stars are dual to common atoms. Planets are dual to molecules, being formed by them. Well, and humans are 1:N dual to human civilization, living at the middle of their own scale.

We can deduce many fundamental aspects of reality (like the symmetry breaking) from the 1:N duality, i.e. from the fact, we are forming part of observable Universe - but not vice-versa. One consequence is, the curvature of all observable objects "inside" of our Universe is inherently positive and we can perceive them as a particles of matter, whereas the negative curvature objects are forming invisible holes, "voids" or particles of energy for us. Such conclusion may appear trivial for someone - but without AWT concept we probably never could explain it in logical way.

Please note that the implicate logic and formal math theorems are 1:N dual as well, because every formal theorem is based on many implications used in its derivation. Which can explain, why AWT appears so different with respect to mainstream physics, based on formal math.

sobota 16. května 2009

Aether model of semiconductors

Being particle fluid based, Aether model can simplify even the intuitive understanding of processes, which are notoriously described in common textbooks, for example the behavior of semiconductor junctions. Because movable electrons doesn't penetrate atom interior very much, by AWT metals can be considered as a dense sponge soaked by movable electrons like fluid, the shape of which roughly corresponds to Fermi surface.

Note that such foam exhibits surface of both positive, both negative curvature. Electrons are repulsing mutually, so they're covering both surfaces of this sponge. The wet surface of sponge is responsible for good electrical and thermal conduction of common metals. At presence of hole conductivity the conductive electrons are collected inside of foam cavities preferably. The flat areas of zero curvature cannot keep the conductive electrons due the balance of electrostatic forces, and they correspond the band gap, occurring in common semiconductors. Under situation, when the motion of free electrons remains restricted to sponge cavities in continuous stripes arranged in hyperlattice, which are serving like pipes full of highly compressed electron gas, we can expect high temperature superconductivity in such system.

Another interesting situation may occur, when two pieces of sponge of different surface curvature are connected together. We can model such situation by connecting of two pieces of porous material, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic one, soaked by moderate amount of water. Because hydrophobic surface repels polar molecules of water, the water will collect inside of pores, thus emulating hole conductivity of P-type semiconductors. The hydrophilic material is attracted by water surface, so that water is forming bridges connecting convex surfaces and it represents a N-type of conductor here.

At the moment, when two pieces of such materials are connected together, the portion of fluid from hydrophobic material is soaked into the hydrophilic half of junction, thus removing water from cavities of neighboring part of hydrophobic material. This is a direct analogy of formation of space charge zone / depletion layer of semiconductor junction. Note that suction of liquid from hydrophilic part of junction doesn't improve the water transfer, it just leads to removal of additional amount of water from hydrophobic part, thus leaving it even less conductive for water molecules.

A quite different situation may appear, when we push additional amount of water in hydrophilic part. After soaking the dry portion of hydrophilic junction, the excessive water will fill up the cavities, so it can pass freely through capillary junction. Apparently, a surface tension based "diode" is formed, but we can imagine even much more complex structures analogous to transistor, thyristor and others, based on capillary forces inside of porous materials of different polarity. Nature supposedly uses these principles for controlled osmosis inside of living cells already, because surface of cell membranes is porous and it contains both hydrophilic, both hydrophobic part, formed by phospholipides.

Note that pushing of fluid into our "capillary diode" requires to overcome pressure exerted by capillary repulsion during filling of emptied cavities inside of hydrophobic part of junction. This corresponds the voltage drop in forward bias direction of semiconductor junctions. We can even met with analogy of recombination at the flat portion of porous surface, when water droplets are forced to overcame negative surface tension, so their surfaces are moving in accelerated way. At the case of liquids of extreme surface tension (like the mercury inside of porous glass), such area can even become the source of audible noise, thus mimicking the formation of photons at the recombination centers of PN junction nearly completelly. Such centers can be observed by Lorentz microscopy directly in thin layer of low temperature superconductors (compare the embedded animation bellow).

Isn't it a bit strange, nobody has ever come with such trivial and intuitive models of superconductivity, not saying about semiconductors and semiconductor junction? Well, this is not so strange in contemporary physics, because particle based models cannot be handled easily by consecutive logics of formal math models, so that formal theorists avoids them. The more easily they can become subject of intuitive thinking and computer simulations, though.

neděle 10. května 2009

AWT and collective guilt

Recently I've read about case of web executive working for TF1, Europe's largest TV network, who sent an email to his Member of Parliament opposing the government's law proposal of Internet disconnections for those who repeatedly infringe online copyrights. His MP forwarded the email to the minister, who forwarded it to TF1. The author of the email soon received a letter saying he is fired for "strong differences with the company's strategy" in a private email sent from a private address (French corporations and government are entangled in ways that people in other countries might find unfamiliar). The point was, MP people were passing the e-mail along for informational purposes reportedly - though if that were true, one wonders, why the identifying information wasn't stripped out of the message. No one "meant" for this to happen - but happened it has, anyway - just because of careless approach of responsible people chaining the sensitive information, which was supported by their own biased stance.

The above case reopens the question of collective guilt. This is subconsciouses emotional reaction, that results among a group of individuals, when it is perceived that the group illegitimately harmed another people. It just illustrates, how sensitive indicator of morality our conscience is - especially in western society, which is "guilt-based" rather then "shame-based". By AWT such morality becomes a manifestation of emergent phenomena in system, when only slightly biased stance of individual components may lead to the fatal results and phase transforms. We can illustrate this situation by large group of people, waiting for opening of discount shop. Even though every member of crowd exerts only weak force to its neighbors, some of people at the head of crowd will get trampled by this crowd.

AWT explains emergence of such action inside of multiparticle field by the assumption, every system of finite sized consists of large number of particles, circumscribed by their surface density gradient, which is manifestation of internal spin in hidden dimensions. In space with even number of spatial dimensions the particle spin is compensated by the same way, like the mutual motion of particles, because of lack of chirality of such system.

But in 3D the situation becomes different. The translation momentum of particles remains compensated at the sufficient distance, whereas the momentum of their internal motion (i.e. the spin) not. Such system behaves like spin field of cellular domains, analogous to Weiss domains of ferromagnetic material. Due the nonzero surface curvature of individual particles the resulting spin of whole system will remain always unbalanced and it undergoes so called spontaneous symmetry breaking. This is because of hairy ball theorem, which states, that there is no nonvanishing continuous tangent vector field on the sphere ("you can't comb a hairy ball flat without creating a cowlick"). From this reason a field formed by system of 3D spherical particles would always exhibit a nonzero vorticity, which would cumulate with distance and it manifest itself in lattice of vorticity cells at the distance. Which basically means, we cannot have a 3D space without black holes separated at distance in less or more regular domains. This is the reason, why our space-time appears filled by black holes even at the most distant view of Hubble ultradepth field without apparent limit. Just the existence of space-time in limited numbers of dimensions is the reason, why its symmetry becomes violated in presence of many higher dimensions undeniably.

The principle of collective guilt has its practical application at the case of particle physics, when mainstream physics insists on safety of LHC experiments , although official safety analysis ignores many apparent risky factors because of biased stance of mainstream physics toward LHC. The subtle bias of physical community can lead to the same result, like carefully planned conspirative activity of mad terrorist just because of cumulative effect of individual ignorance. As another case can serve the politically motivated refusal of Aether theory at the beginning of 20th century, the rise of Nazi party and Nazism in Germany before WW II or the blind adherence to peer review principles, which has lead to ignorance of cold fusion or antigravity experiments. The memo is, we should never underestimate collective ignorance, when more individuals are involved without public feedback by Czech proverb: "A hundred times nothing killed the donkey".

AWT and quintessence concept

In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy postulated as an explanation of observations of an accelerating of universe expansion. Quintessence causes the effect we experience as gravity. Since quintessence exists only in empty space, it does not exist where sub-atomic particles exist. A planet such as the Earth consists of many sub-atomic particles, and between those particles, quintessence exists.

Since Earth's moon consists of fewer sub-atomic particles than those that make up the Earth, there is a smaller volume where quintessence is absent when compared to the Earth. Therefore, the push from quintessence is less restricted by the moon. Hence, the difference in the quintessence push from the volume of space encompassed by the moon versus the volume of space encompassed by the Earth results in what we experience as the pull of gravity.

The quintessence concept follows from diffusion of particles in dense Aether model of AWT and it corresponds the "ultramundane flux" (i.e. flux of tachyons or gravitational waves), which was conjectured by Fatio/Le Sage theory of gravitation (1690) before more than three hundred years.

The usage of new denomination for classical well known concepts of former authors without quotation violates the principles of Occam's razor and scientific priority and it's called a plagiarism. In this case it's rather an another attempt of mainstream proponents to cover the apparent fact, they fighted against Aether concept for many years, while adopting Aether ideas quietly on background - thus fooling the publicity and itself (the usage of Lorentz invariance or Lagrangian and Hamilton mechanics borrowed from Aether theory is the problem of the same category).

In dual way, we can consider introduction of quintessence concept like attempt, how to avoid the censorship of peer-review during presenting of extrapolations of Aether theory. Every sectarian community doesn't allow and tolerate mistakes in the eyes of publicity, which leads to reintroduction of formerly misunderstood ideas under new names. Such behavior is even more stupid and amoral, then the stance of Holy Church, which simply refused scientific ideas - but it didn't stole them for the sake of its theology.

In AWT the dark energy is the mechanism dual to dark matter, i.e. the surface tension of density blobs of vacuum, which are source of gravity field and gravitational lensing phenomena. On the outer sides of every blob the gravity field is of negative curvature, which leads to repulsive force at the distance. The same effect is responsible for weak nuclear force at short distances or for repulsion of mercury droplets at human scale. It means, when massive objects during inflation achieve certain critical distance, they're repelled by repulsive force instead of attraction.

Neither AWT, neither relativity theory are forced to consider quintessence at all, because
  1. omnidirectional expansion of space-time is one of implicit consequences of general relativity (a positive or negative cosmological constant)
  2. the omnidirectional expansion of space-time in connection of curvature of space-time concept of gravity field in general relativity leads to the very same effect, like the quintessence.
Which basically means, quintessence concept is redundant both for aetherists, both for relativists - as both the dark energy, both dark matter phenomena can be explained by existing theories without (re)introduction of ad-hoced concepts and postulates.

pátek 8. května 2009

AWT and multiverse concept

This post is a reaction to recent NewScientist article, promoting the string theory motivated view of multiverse concept by Brian Greene. The crucial problem here is, the multiverse concept is poorly defined even with respect to other concepts of mainstream physics, the AWT the less. How the scope of multiverse is defined? How is it related to "many worlds" or "parallel universe" concepts?
  • "Many worlds" concept was promoted by Hugh Everett originally (1957) and it usually means, different observers would see the same space-time event differently.
  • Parallel universe concept usually considers the existence of another, less or more similar - just causally separated - universe at the different place of space-time.
  • Multiverse in string theory interpretation usually means, at some (if not all) places of our space-time another space-time events may occur in hidden dimensions set alternatively.

If we define our universe like place, where known laws of existing physics remains valid, we can say, our Universe is defined as a place, where some sufficiently general theory of everything remains valid. If string theory is such a theory, for example, we can postulate our Universe as a place, where string theory remains valid and the parallel universe will be place, where string theory isn't valid. Such definition would mean, string theory isn't TOE anymore, or it even contradicts itself, as it predict something, which violates the string theory. Which is probably not, what the string theorists (prof. Brian Greene or Michio Kaku in particular) expects/promote.

OK, we can define a parallel universe as a place, where all existing physical laws remains valid, it just exhibits another configuration or different physical constants. For example, it's the place, where existing particles are creating different structures, then those, which we know from our Universe. For example, in tropic areas electrons and protons are forming rain forests, whereas in Arctic areas they're forming ice only - is that what the multiverse means? Supposedly not. So, we can consider, in multiverse only gravitons (axions or neutrino or black holes..) can exists, all remaining particles or structures are of different nature, stability, etc. As such multiverse could serve the interior of neutron star, after then. Which is still not, what we are looking for.

Another definition of multiverse may be based on relativity phenomena. Each of observer would see a bit different reality, while these realities are still tied together by common radiative time arrow. For example, observer in relative motion would see the same muon less stable or even decomposed, then observer at rest. It seems, such situation still doesn't fulfill the definition of multiverse, as it falls belong realm of predictions of classical relativity.

The uniqueness of radiative time arrow would be violated at the case, when light signals propagates through density gradient of vacuum, so that the gravitational lensing takes place. It means, a single space-time events has a multiple consequences at different places. Is this, what the multiverse means, already? We should realize, the violation of radiative time arrow would mean the violation of Lorentz symmetry as well, which is prohibited in strictly rigorous string theory, because this theory is using special relativity in its derivations and as such it uses Lorentz symmetry as one of its fundamental postulates.

At the case of rotating black hole, the location of event horizon would depend on polarization of light - vacuum exhibits a birefringence and related phenomena, vacuum analogies of Faraday and Kerr effects. It's the another, even deeper manifestation of quantum uncertainty at macroscopic scale. Everett's interpretation of quantum entanglement uses the many worlds concept - is such manifestation of quantum uncertainty what, the multiverse means in string theory? It seems not, as string theory itself is quantum mechanics based already - the prediction of quantum uncertainty in quantum mechanic way would become a trivial conclusion here.

In AWT the existence of multiverse depends solely on observational perspective and the scope of observations. From AWT perspective, which is most general possible one, no real place for multiverse concept can exists, because everything fulfills the very same theory here. If it doesn't, then the AWT cannot predict it in causal way. From the above follows, observational perspective is always defined by observer. Because people are the only known creatures, who can observe the things like electrons, photons and black holes, the observational scope is defined by abilities of people to observe these artifacts. It has no meaning to ask, whether the multiverse can appear differently, because we couldn't see them at all. Which effectively means, no multiverse can exist here, or it would become a part of our Universe.

Because the causal perspective of people is defined by transversal energy wave spreading inside of random system of Aether particles, we would see whole Universe exactly the same. If some newly revealed physical laws would enable us to see a larger portion from our Universe, then the newly revealed portion of Universe would share the same laws with the portion of Universe observed by now. For example, we can consider, if the observable portion of Universe appears like interior of black hole, then the outer Hyper-Universe would appear exactly the same, like the observable generation of Universe - or we could never interact with it, to predict or to see it the less.

Such conclusion fits the Copernican principle in particular, by which every observable portion of Universe doesn't differ significantly from another portions of Universe and our location in Universe is not significant in any way. This theorem corresponds the anthropic principle, in which every product of long term evolution would see its environment as a best place for its life - just because it's a product of long term adaptation to this environment. From this perspective anthropic principle becomes a sort of self-referencing tautology. Which means, you cannot predict nothing very much usefull with using it, but you cannot disprove it so easily as well.

Some positivistic people aren't convenient with antropic view of reality, though - as they believe, the random model of Universe isn't sufficient for explanation of "unique character" of observable reality. They didn't realize, inside of dense random particle environment only transversal energy can propagate at distance, because longitudinal waves compensate mutually even at short distance. To be able to see our Universe sufficiently large, we should become adopted perfectly to observation of Universe in causal way, i.e. with transversal waves, which puts rather strict limit to the possible appearance of universal randomness. And the deeper in space-time perspective we are supposed to see, the stronger such limit should follow.

Four approaches to dark matter

As J. Duffield once pointed out, people often say, gravitational anomalies are evidence for dark matter, but they aren’t. Dark matter is a hypothesis that attempts to explain the evidence. The evidence is the gravitational anomaly, instead. The dark matter phenomena can be explained in context of existing theories at least four ways, which appear nearly equivalent phenomenologically. The another approach, based on dispersion in particle field based is illustrated here:
  1. The simplest explanation of dark matter (DM) is based on AWT, by which every gravity field is a result of density gradient of Aether. At the case of massive bodies the highest density gradient exists just at the surface of massive object. This density gradient is a source of additional weak gravity field of negative curvature, which attracts and collects the particles of negative surface too, the particles of antimatter in particular - which is one of the ways, in which such interpretation of DM may be tested.

    From AWT follows, the idea of gravitational singularity of general is conceptually wrong, as every high curvature of Aether density would manifests like another source of matter density, which would balance the singularity at the center. This is a direct consequence of gradient driven reality (i.e. the fact, nature doesn't like jumps and steps).

  2. Another explanation may be based on general relativity in connection to mass-energy equivalence. We can consider again, maximal curvature of space-time of every massive object exists at the surface of this object. This curvature is equivalent to energy density of space-time, which is equivalent to mass density by E=mc^2 formula (this approach was formalized by J. Bekenstein and Rudi V. Nieuwenhove recently.) This additional mass density balances the curvature of the space-time, which has caused gravity field originally.

    Note that large space-time curvature at the surface of massive object will lead to violation of buoyancy condition, because mass/energy density may become higher here, then at the center of massive object - which would lead to undulations of space-time and indeterministic quantum mechanics behavior - so it suggests a route, how to implement quantum gravity solution, at least locally.

  3. Another model of dark matter may be based on general relativity and concept of omnidirectional Universe expansion. The Lense-Thirring effect is based on constant speed of energy spreading in curved space-time, which leads to reference frame dragging. If we introduce an omnidirectional space-time expansion, it will be pronounced the more, the more the space-time is curved already. This will gradually lead to freezing of energy spreading in expanding space-time, which will therefore move like single body from distant observer perspective. For example, Pioneer anomaly is based on acceleration, which is proportional to product of Hubble constant and speed of light. It can serve as an indicia, the limited speed of light and omnidirectional expansion of space-time itself is sufficient for explanation of dark matter behavior.

    The surface-tension model of AWT is still more intuitive here, though: we can imagine, the gravity field of galaxy behaves like single giant water droplet, the surface of which is behaving like water surface. And energy spreads always slower at the water surface, then through underwater or above the surface. It means, at surface layer of every gradient of gravity field the light or gravity spread in slower speed, then at the bulk. The space-time moves here like more dense and rigid body, which we can observe by rotational curves of individual stars at the galactic boundaries.
  4. The most abstract explanation of dark matter phenomena may be based on pure geometry of omnidirectional space-time expansion, where the volume of every area of space-time increases faster, then its surface. Because geometry of energy spreading is given by Lagrangian (which follows from diffusional Aether model on background), the energy spreading through bulk (via longitudinal waves) switches itself into surface spreading (via transversal waves) in less or more distant perspective - thus creating a new reference frame, because human creatures can consider only surface transversal waves in causal energy spreading at distance.
The problem of math models is, they become poorly conditioned, when large number of parameters or postulates is involved. As we can see, even qualitative models may lead to similar results here - so it may be difficult to distinguish between then. The increasing number of various theories becomes a brake of the intersubjective understanding of reality, after then - which isn't quite accidental here, because dark matter is a quantum gravity phenomena and a manifestation of hidden dimensions of space-time. We cannot have a formal model of gravity based on quantum mechanics, while retaining full determinism of general relativity. Mainstream physics was trapped in determinism of consecutive logics, on which formal math is based.

neděle 3. května 2009

AWT and room temperature supersolidity

How AWT, tin cry, snow avalanche, liquid crystals and helium supersolid may be related mutually? Well, by emergence of many instances of surface quantum phenomena into macroscopic bulk effect. The fact, helium doesn't freeze at room pressure even at the absolute zero temperature is a direct evidence of Aether character of vacuum, which exhibit a Brownian motion, which keeps the nuclei of helium atoms in "aethernal" motion (so called the "zero-point energy" or ZPE), by the same way, like pollen particles in water. Only religious refusal of Aether concept during last one hundred years prohibited the mainstream physicists to realize this apparent connection. The remarkable fact here is, zero point energy of vacuum originated at the Planck scale level (1.6 x 10E-35 meters) manifests in the way, which is observable by naked eye at the human scale (3 x 10E-3 meters) - i.e. over thirty orders of scale magnitude - which is truly amazing!

By AWT the supersolidity is a quantum analogy of liquid crystals or ice regelation. Did you notice, how fresh cold snow crackles and crunches under your feet? A supersolidity takes place here - just in quite limited extent, indeed. The trick is, the surface of helium-4 crystals isn't dry in certain range of low temperatures, as it's being covered by thin layer of molten superfluid helium, which lubricates them by the same way, like surface of snowflakes. In thin a few nanometers thick layers so called ballistic transport mechanism takes place. It can be called a "low distance superconductivity" of "low distance superfluidity". We can observe this in thin layers of graphene or semiconductors even at room temperature: the electrons aren't moving' continuously here, but in small jumps, during which they're behaving like boson condensate. This is a result of geometric degeneration of quantum wave, which is constrained in thin layer like particle in 1D box - so called quantum tunneling can take place here. A real sample of solid helium is presented bellow - it requires the temperatures bellow -272.2 ºC and over 40 atmosphere pressure to exists:

The same mechanism occurs in thin surface layers of snow or ice, where it is magnified by large number of crystalline particles involved. The fluid moves in thin quantum vortices along surface of crystals by mechanism, which is similar to domino effect. The same effect is responsible for anomalous slipperiness of ice and ice regelation. And of course, it occurs in solid helium in much more pronounced way, because of low temperature. It means, the fluid / solid mixture of helium crystals is not completely superfluous, but it responds to small deformations freely. But we can observe it even in another systems in smaller extent, for example the so called "tin cry" (sound sample) is the bulk phenomena of the same category.

The helium-4 differs from helium-3 in scope of supersolidity. Atoms of helium-3 are non-symmetric due the odd numbers of nucleons, which effectively means, ballistic transport remains constrained to surface of crystals and dislocations inside of frozen helium. The symmetrical atoms of helium-4 are adsorbed to these surfaces preferably, as they condense more easily - so they're killing the effect here like every impurity, which prohibits a free motion along surface of crystalline domains. The surface character of supersolidity in helium-3 manifests by limited temperature range, in which this remarkable effect can take place - at temperature bellow 1K the surface layer of molten helium freezes and supersolidity disappear. The water molecules are highly polarized in charge, so that the surface phenomena can take place in -52 ºC to 0 ºC temperature range, whereas some larger rod-like molecules are asymmetric up to level, they're forming a "liquid crystal" in the bulk phase even at highly elevated temperatures.

With compare to above systems, supersolidity of helium-4 is much more subtle phenomena, which occurs at lowest temperature range only, because of high symmetry of 4He atom nuclei. It manifests only at the moment, when number of crystalline domains becomes very high - it means inside of glass phase of helium, prepared by fast cooling. Such glass can be considered as amorphous phase with large amount of tiny dislocations, where the surface quantum phenomena become more pronounced due the large number of surfaces involved. Glass can flow rather quickly at nanoscale, which can be illustrated in experiments with fast healing of thin holes formed by ion bombardment. The flowing of glass is well known from limited lifetime of glass knives, used for ultramicrotomy or from healing of tiny glass cracks, which can be determined by fracture mechanics techniques. Because dislocations inside of glass phase are very small in size, the scope of ballistic transport is quite limited here, which results in "quantum jelly" or "superglass" behavior, rather then "quantum crunching".

These subtle phenomena can become quite significant even at large scales, as they can promote for example the formation of avalanches in mountain areas. It means, a subtle quantum surface effect, which applies to nanometer distances can kill people here due its cumulative effect over large number of particles involved. And this is basically, what the whole AWT is about.

sobota 2. května 2009

AWT and definition of space

In AWT theory the definition of space depends on definition of space-time, so that the definition of space cannot be separated from definition of time due the mutual symmetry of transversal and longitudinal wave spreading through Aether. This relation is one of most important finding of relativity theory, albeit rather unconscious / ad-hoced at Einstein's times - so that Aether theory extends the understanding of this relation to duality of space and time.

In AWT analogy the space-time is the density gradient, forming water surface. The space dimensions are the directions (space-time dimensions) planparallel to water surface, while the remaining direction (a time dimension) is normal ("perpendicular") to water surface. This model explains naturally the symmetry of space dimension and the asymmetry of time dimension (so called the time arrow), the various number of space and time dimensions and much more.

Surprisingly, nobody has pointed to this trivial analogy in physics after one hundred years or relativity theory development - isn't it somewhat strange? Anyway - it's apparent, both time, both space has a robust meaning in physics. If we admit, here's no space, we should admit, here's no time as well - and how we could explain the tangible difference in time and space symmetry (space has no arrow, so we can move along it rather freely), the various number of spatial and time dimensions of space-time and so on..? If something makes a difference, it must exists, because difference is, what makes things real in AWT.

The causal space-time is the place, where density of Aether exhibits some density gradient, so it can behave like water surface, which can serve for transversal wave spreading, i.e. for causal energy propagating at distance. Therefore the scope of space always correspond the scope of causal time arrow, which is virtually unlimited because of infinite mass/energy density of Aether by definition. Infinite (or zero) things usually doesn't need any further explanation from human perspective. Every fixed number is suspect from strictly causal perspective and as such it needs an even deeper explanation. Until the time is infinite by definition, the space remains infinite, too.

Space is always "empty" by definition, because motion in it doesn't requires, neither excerts an energy. If space could be visible, it would become a observer object in space. No pin-point object can serve both like subject of observation, both like mean of observation at the same moment, from this the deep misunderstanding of Aether concept follows. Aether cannot be observed, until it serves as a luminiferous medium of space-time by definition - therefore the speed of energy spreading is always invariant by definition and it has no reference frame in space. If we are moving under exchange of energy with environment via dispersion or during climbing to hill, we can be sure, we are moving in space-time - not just space. If we could observe space, it would mean, space isn't space anymore. Due the nonlocality of every observer and observation process in space-time (real observer isn't never pinpoint object by the same way, like every observation at distance takes some nonzero time), the emptiness of space is always violated by the same way, like the Lorentz invariance at all space-time scales.

Because scope of space is delimited by scope of transversal energy spreading from local perspective of any observer, the limitation of space (and time) scope is the speed of causal energy spreading from observer, the light speed in particular. Therefore we can say, radius of observable Universe corresponds the speed of light spreading multiplied by age of observable Universe.

Another limitation of space concept is the scope of causal energy spreading along single time dimension. Whenever observer starts to move in another time dimension(s), we are saying, it undergoes a dispersion or compactification. Due the presence of cohesion forces inside of object, dispersion usually begins at surface - so we are saying, it collapses or evaporates. The evaporation of water or meteors during their fall through Earth atmosphere, the evaporation of matter in contact of magnetosphere of magnetars or during fall into black holes are all dispersions of energy wave packet forming observable object from AWT perspective. Therefore inside of observable Universe the space is limited by stability of observer - it cannot cross the boundaries of observable space, or (s)he would follow another dimensions of space, i.e. (s)he would collapse and/or evaporate into smaller particles of matter, or even into pure energy, i.e into radiation.

From symmetry of time arrow follows, every dispersion of matter into smaller particles bellow observer scale is followed by some compactification of smaller particles into large objects above the observer scale. We aren't considering the dispersion or collapse as a traveling in time usually, but this is exactly, what these things means in AWT. Note that the dispersion corresponds the traveling into past, whereas the collapse denotes the traveling into future with respect to omni-directional space-time expansion. The observer space-time scale usually defines the local boundary between both time arrows. Due the breaking of symmetry between insintric and exsintric perspectives (every local object appears like part of global object, inside of which it resides), the symmetry of space-time arrows is violated toward a dispersion from local observer perspective, so we tend to believe, entropy of Universe increases as a whole.

Of course the boundary between time arrows isn't always completely sharp due the particle nature of space-time gradient by the same way, like symmetry between insintric and exsintric perspective (i.e. the boundary between space and observable objects inside it). When symmetry of dispersion is broken, we are talking about refraction, the gravitational lensing in particular. For example dark matter can serve both like space, both like observed object. With compare to various field theories, AWT doesn't require some tangible particles for dark matter to exist. In AWT interpretation the streaks of dark matter can be simply formed by more dense areas of Aether foam. Such dense areas exhibits a refraction, when observed from distance - but from proximity they appear like normal transparent space-time.

The dispersion means, the transversal character of energy spreading and uniqueness of time arrow is violated, at least for some most lightweight particles, like the photons. Because causual energy spreading is mediated by transversal waves, the dispersion is usually followed by birefringence, which means, some portion of photons from some space-time events spreads in different directions in space depending on polarization of wave - which is impossible from strictly causal perspective. The collapse of object into black hole singularity can be understood as a violation of causality as well. Therefore the presence of some observable objects in space is always connected to some violation of causality and increase of number of time arrows - despite of we usually don't realize it. And every evaporation is manifestation of hidden dimensions of space by the same way, like every dispersion of light energy is a direct manifestation of Lorentz symmetry violation. In this way, AWT unifies our fundamental understanding of space and time and various other concepts by concept of particle environment symmetry.